Advanced ceramics are used in medical technology including the following aspects: Bioceramics, Dental systems, Instruments and tools, etc.
The medical field benefits from many characteristics of ceramics, such as inertness, non-toxicity, hardness, high compressive strength, low coefficient of friction, abrasion and chemical resistance, aseptic properties, manufacturing capabilities with various porosities, very good Aesthetics, and durability. By introducing ceramic composite materials and nano-structured materials and by processing (such as by hot isostatic pressing) to reduce its brittleness. In cases where the mechanical strength and toughness of the substrate need to be relied on, ceramic coatings may also be considered.
The ceramics used for the human body are called bioceramics. Mainly used in medical implants, in the form of blocks or as a coating or filler. Plastic surgery involving surgical implantation of these implants is intended to replace hip, knee, joint, craniofacial, and spine hard tissues, and has become increasingly popular as the world population continues to age.
Another related application of ceramic materials is represented by dental ceramics, which includes orthodontic devices (e.g. braces), prostheses (e.g. crowns, bridges), and implants (e.g. all-ceramic root implants). Since they can be matched to the natural color of the teeth, from an aesthetic point of view, ceramic materials can provide better results than traditional metal products. For dental implants, ceramic materials have better osseointegration than titanium, and are engineered to prevent infection and deterioration, especially through the use of nanomaterials.
Instruments and tools
Ceramics also have other important applications in medical devices and tools, including tissue engineering scaffolds; medical pumps; blood shear valves for hematology testing; drug delivery devices; piezoelectric elements for medical tools and instruments; and ceramics for imaging equipment to metal components. Moreover, ceramic particles and microspheres are becoming increasingly popular in cancer radiotherapy and other targeted therapies.